Finnish Photographer Makes Photograms from Saliva

cameraless photographyA photographer from Finland has stumbled upon an interesting junction between the worlds of art and biology.

By placing saliva on undeveloped photographic paper, Erno Erik Raitanen was able to grow bacterial cultures on the paper while it developed. The resulting images, dubbed “bacteriograms” are surprisingly colorful and artistic. They almost look like something captured by an electron microscope, except with vibrant color.

Photograms (sometimes called cameraless photography) are made by placing objects on light-sensitive materials and then exposing them to light. The microbes in Raitanen’s saliva affect the photographic paper on which they were placed through their normal growth and biological processes. They eat away the coating on the photographic paper, creating the colorful effect.

If not stopped, the microbes continue growing on the paper. Raitanen has tried to remove all the bacteria from some of the images he feels are complete, but continues to find new cultures growing on them occasionally.

Tips for Avoiding Motorcycle Accidents

Motorcycle accidents are particularly devastating to the biker because you are more vulnerable when you have an unfortunate encounter with anything with more than two wheels. Moreover, when you and your motorcycle are forced to part ways by momentum and gravity, your life depends on the integrity of your helmet, the softness of the surface you land on, and blind luck. So all in all, learn to use a motorcycle safely to avoid accidents. Even if it’s the other guy’s fault and you have strong grounds on which to file a lawsuit, you can still end up suffering considerable pain and other losses.

Here are some tips to keep yourself seated and cruising happily on the asphalt:

  • Practice respect and courtesy on the road
  • Attend at least one motorcycle training seminar
  • Don’t tailgate
  • Don’t drink and drive
  • Avoid being between two vehicles
  • Follow traffic and road safety rules
  • Use your signal lights
  • Slow down on intersections
  • Avoid weaving in and out of traffic
  • Keep a reasonable speed especially on city streets and in inclement weather
  • Keep visible to other motorists
  • Wear safety gear at all times, especially a DOT approved helmet

The freedom that riding a motorcycle gives is not without drawbacks. Because you are small and nimble, you can manage traffic conditions more easily. However, for this reason you are also more vulnerable to injuries and accidents even if you are a responsible biker. If someone’s negligence, recklessness, or lack of skill still involves you in an accident despite taking due care, contact an experienced personal injury lawyer who will evaluate if you have a case, and help you fight for compensation for your medical expenses as well as the pain and suffering you underwent through no fault of your own.

Options for Breast Augmentation

Women and even certain men choose to have breast augmentation for a variety of reasons, from their overall appearance to medical issues. Fortunately, with the many advances that have been made in the plastic surgery field, people looking to get breast augmentation have several options.

Breast augmentation, medically termed as augmentation mammoplasty, is the procedure to increase the size of the breast. It is also used as part of breast reconstruction following breast cancer surgery or other physical injury. This helps increase a woman’s self-esteem and confidence. Depending on your preferred breast size post surgery, there are two options of implants that you can use:

Silicone breast implants – these are silicone envelopes filled with soft, elastic gel. They are generally pre-filled. This elastic gel gives it the advantage of feeling more natural. One drawback of silicone breast implants, however, is that once it leaks, it can be hard to detect. It may leak into the scar capsule or even into the tissues around the breast. Additionally, because of their gel-like composition, they require a longer incision.

Saline breast implants – implants filled with sterile saline solution. Although they are filled to a pre-determined size, they can still be filled during operations to adjust the breast size. Incision for saline implants are smaller compared to silicone implants, and they cost less. Many women choose this type of breast implant because if they leak, the body can just dispose it naturally. However, they are more susceptible to ripples as compared to gel implants.

Both types of implants are approved by the FDA; therefore, they are both safe and do not increase the risk of breast cancer. However, because they each have their own advantages and disadvantages, it is advisable to have a consultation with an experienced medical professional in this field to understand which is best for you.

Erb’s Palsy due to Negligence

Despite advances in technology and medical knowledge, there are still many things that can go wrong during childbirth. One of these is Erb’s palsy, also known as brachial plexus palsy. It is an injury sustained only during actual delivery, and involves trauma to the nerves located near the neck called the brachial plexus. The injury occurs when the baby’s neck is stretched to the side during a difficult delivery such as a breech presentation (feet first), prolonged labor, or expulsion of a large baby. It may also be due to the improper use of some instrument to facilitate delivery or incorrect technique, in which case the doctor may be liable.

The brachial plexus controls the movement of the arms and hands. Infants who suffer Erb’s palsy may have weakness and numbness in one arm, or partial or total paralysis. The permanence of these effects will depend on the extent of the injury and the availability of treatment.

There are varying degrees of trauma, from mild (neurapraxia) to severe (avulsion). In neurapraxia, the nerves are injured but not torn, so the nerve should heal within 3 months. Avulsion, however, is the complete detachment of the nerves from the spinal cord, which cannot be repaired.

If you believe that your child’s injury was due to negligence, you may be able to file a claim for compensation. It should be noted that it may be difficult to prove negligence as this type of injury can be attributed to factors beyond the attending physician’s control, such as poor maternal health. However, if the circumstances clearly indicate negligence, such as the refusal of the doctor to perform a caesarean section even when the mother requested it, then that is a different matter.


What is TMJ?

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is what joins the temporal bone and mandible of the jaw. It is an articulated joint, meaning that it is bifurcated by a disc to allow rotational and translational movements of the jaw. The TMJ is quite small, but it serves an essential function: opening and closing the mouth.

Because of its function and position in the head, as well as the frequency of its use, the TMJ has a significant impact on the whole body. So when it doesn’t work properly because of incorrect positioning, it will become apparent very quickly and will manifest in a multitude of ways.

The symptoms of TMJ disorders, or simply TMJD, can be divided into acute or chronic pain. These include but are not limited to:

  • Back pain
  • Difficulty in chewing or biting
  • Distinct clicking or popping sounds when opening or closing the jaw
  • Dizziness
  • Earache
  • Facial pain
  • Headache or migraine
  • Limited opening of the mouth
  • Loss of hearing
  • Neck pain
  • Shoulder pain
  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ear)

Physicians who are consulted by those who suffer TMJD seldom pinpoint the problem at once because some of the symptoms don’t seem to have anything to do with that little cartilage at the side of the face. But once a suspicion arises and the patient is referred to a TMJD specialist or neuromuscular dentist, the solution is just a matter of pinpointing the optimal positioning of the TMJ and choosing the appropriate treatment modality. In most cases, TMJD treatment involves the fitting of an intraoral appliance or orthotic for up to 6 months and then orthodontic treatment.

It may sound simple, but diagnosis and treatment of TMJD is not easy for dentists who have no experience in treating the disorder. To get effective relief from orofacial pain, consult with a neuromuscular dentist as soon as possible.


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